The impact of urbanisation on crop–livestock farming system: A comparative case study of India and Bangladesh

The paper has attempted to explore the impact of urbanisation on crop–livestock farming system in changing economic space and the livelihood impact of these changes. Urbanisation in South Asia is gaining momentum in recent years with rapid changes in economic activities and migration from rural space to urban centres for better live. This results in increasing the share of non-producer; declining agricultural land and increasing food prices; and putting pressure on the livelihoods of rural as well as urban poor. All these changes specially the land use patterns brought changes in crop–livestock farming system which dominates in South Asia. The study is based on a trans-regional household-level survey in three regions across India and Bangladesh. The results reflect that the intensification and interdependence between crop–livestock is highest where farmers have better access to urban market. In regard to system sustainability, the low-intensity zone appears to be most threatened as farmers have less access to urban market and more pressure on biomass. Non-farm income plays a major role in financing for innovation in agriculture sector in low urbanised area. There needs deeper understanding to integrate the crop–livestock in efficient way that can improve the livelihood without compromising sustainability of the system.