Uptake and impact of climate-smart agriculture on food security, incomes and assets in East Africa: Findings from Nyando Climate-Smart Villages in Western Kenya

Farmers in East Africa are experiencing increasing livelihood challenges attributed to increasing scarcity of agricultural land, steep rises in food prices, deteriorating soil fertility and associated declining crop yields, poor market access and, in some cases unclear land tenure systems (Yamano et al. 2011). Climate change compounds these challenges, with the region witnessing changing climatic conditions characterized by warmer temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and increased frequency and severity of extreme weather conditions (Wheeler and Von Braun 2013). Expected consequences and impacts of these changes include shortened and disrupted growing seasons, reduction in area suitable for agriculture and declining yields in agriculture (Connolly-Boutin and Smit 2016).