Rising incomes are already placing unprecedented demands on the world’s agricultural systems. Natural resource degradation and climate change exacerbate the global risks for food security and the environment. Enhancing the productivity and sustainability of agricultural systems is essential to improving human well-being in the developing world and reducing poverty. The goal of the proposed research is to deepen our understanding of the complex linkages among socioeconomic and environmental change, the functioning of agricultural systems and human well-being. The research will improve representation of agricultural systems and their potential roles in enhancing human wellbeing. The product will be a comprehensive modeling environment integrating socioeconomic, biophysical and technological responses to simulate global, regional, and local consequences of technology investments in the context of changing policies and natural resource threats. It will provide an improved platform to assist international agricultural research centers, development agencies, and national governments in strategic planning and investment decisions.